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Израиль и Палестина
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Maki (current political party)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Communist Party of Israel)
Maki



Founded   1 September 1965 (as Rakah)

Leader   Collective leadership
(Central Committee)

Most MKs   5 (As part of Hadash, 1977)
Current MKs   4 (As part of Hadash, 2009)

Political ideology   Communism,
Socialism,
Marxism

International affiliation   None
European affiliation   None

Headquarters   Nazareth

Colour(s)   Red

Ballot letters   "

Website   Maki Official website

See also the Politics of Israel series

 
The 19th Congress of the Israeli Communist Party.

Maki (Hebrew: ", an acronym for HaMiflega HaKomunistit HaYisraelit (Hebrew:  ?? , lit. Israeli Communist Party) is a communist political party in Israel and forms part of the political alliance known as Hadash. It was originally known as Rakah (Hebrew: ", an acronym for Reshima Komunistit Hadasha (Hebrew:  ?? , lit. New Communist List), and is not the same party as the original Maki, from which it broke away in the 1960s.

History

Rakah was formed on 1 September 1965 due to internal disagreements in Maki. Maki, the original Israeli Communist Party, saw a split between a largely Jewish faction led by Moshe Sneh, which recognized Israel's right to exist and was critical of the Soviet Union's increasingly anti-Israel stance, and a largely Arab faction, which was increasingly anti-Zionist. As a result, the pro-Palestinian faction (including Emile Habibi, Tawfik Toubi and Meir Vilner) left Maki to form a new party, Rakah, which the Soviet Union recognised as the "official" Communist Party. It was reported in the Soviet media that the Mikunis-Sneh group defected to the bourgois-nationalist camp.[1]

The 1965 elections saw Rakah party win three seats, comprehensively beating Maki as it slumped to just one. Rakah's opposition to Zionism and the Six-Day War meant they were excluded from the national unity governments of the sixth Knesset. In the 1969 elections Rakah again won three seats. During the 1973 elections Rakah saw a rise in support as the party picked up four seats.

Before the 1977 elections the party joined up with some other marginal left-wing and Arab parties, including some members of the Israeli Black Panthers to form Hadash. Hadash means "new" in Hebrew, a possible reference to Rakah's name; it is also a Hebrew acronym for The Democratic Front for Peace and Equality. In the meantime, the original Maki had disappeared after merging into Ratz in 1981. In 1989, members of Rakah decided to change the party's name to Maki to reflect their status as the only official communist party in Israel.[2] The party remains the leading force in Hadash to this day, and owns the Al-Ittihad newspaper.
.......................................
Hadash
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hadash



Founded   1977

Leader   Mohammad Barakeh

Most MKs   5 (1977)
Current MKs   4 (2009)

Political ideology   Communism[1][2]
Socialism
Marxism

International affiliation   None

Headquarters   Nazareth

Colour(s)   Red, green

Ballot letters   ??

Website   www.hadash.org.il
www.aljabha.org/

See also the Politics of Israel series

 
Uri Avnery at a Hadash rally against the 2006 Lebanon War.

Hadash (Hebrew: ", lit. New, an acronym for HaHazit HaDemokratit LeShalom VeLeShivion (Hebrew:  ??  , lit. The Democratic Front for Peace and Equality); Arabic:    ????, al-Jabhah al-Dimuqriyyah lil-Salm wa'al-Muswah) is a far left political party in Israel. It currently has four members in the 120-seat Knesset.Contents [hide]
1 Background
2 Policies and ideology
2.1 Election platform
3 Current Knesset Members
3.1 Former Knesset Members
4 References
5 External links


[edit]
Background

The party was formed on 15 March 1977 when the Rakah and Non-Partisans parliamentary group changed its name to Hadash in preparation for the 1977 elections. The non-partisans included some members of the Black Panthers (several others joined the Left Camp of Israel) and other left-wing non-communist groups. Within the Hadash movement, Rakah (which was renamed Maki, a Hebrew acronym for Israeli Communist Party, in 1989) has retained its independent status.

In its first electoral test, Hadash won five seats, an increase of one on Rakah's previous four. However, in the next elections in 1981 the party was reduced to four seats. It maintained its four seats in the 1984 elections, gaining another MK when Mohammed Wattad defected from Mapam in 1988. The 1988 election resulted in another four-seat haul, though the party lost a seat when Charlie Biton broke away to establish Black Panthers as an independent faction on 25 December 1990. The 1992 elections saw the party remain at three seats.

In the 1996 elections the party ran a joint list with Balad. Together they won five seats, but split during the Knesset term,[3] with Hadash reduced to three seats. The 1999 elections saw them maintain three seats, with Barakeh and Issam Makhoul replacing Ahmad Sa'd and Saleh Saleem.

In the 2003 elections Hadash ran on another joint list, this time with Ahmed Tibi's Ta'al. The list won three seats,[4] but again split during the parliamentary session, leaving Hadash with two MKs, Barakeh and Makhoul

In the 2006 elections Hadash won three seats, with Hana Sweid and Dov Khenin entering the Knesset alongside Barakeh. The party won an additional seat in the 2009 elections, taken by Afu Agbaria.

[edit]
Policies and ideology

The party supports evacuation of all Israeli settlements, a complete withdrawal by Israel from all territories occupied as a result of the Six-Day War, and the establishment of a Palestinian state in those territories. It also supports the right of return or compensation for Palestinian refugees.[5] In addition to issues of peace and security, Hadash is also known for being active on social and environmental issues.[6]

Hadash defines itself as a non-Zionist party, originally in keeping with Marxist opposition to nationalism. It calls for recognition of Palestinian Arabs as a national minority within Israel.[7]

[edit]
Election platform

The party's platform for the 2009 elections consisted of:.[8]
Achieving a just, comprehensive, and stable peace: Israeli/Palestinian and Israeli/Arab
Protecting workers' rights and issues
Developing social services: health, education, housing, welfare, culture, and sports
Equality for the Arab population in Israel
Eradicating ethnic discrimination in all fields; defending the concerns of residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods and development towns
Protecting democratic freedoms
Equality between the sexes in all fields
Protecting the environment; environmental justice
Eradicating weapons of mass destruction

[edit]
Current Knesset Members
Mohammad Barakeh (since 1999)
Hana Sweid (since 2006)
Dov Khenin (since 2006)
Afu Agbaria (since 2009)

[edit]
Former Knesset MembersCharlie Biton (1977-1990)
Tamar Gozansky (1990-2003)
Avraham Levenbraun (1977, 1981)
Hashem Mahameed (1990-2003)   Issam Makhoul (1999-2006)
Hana Mwais (1977-1981)
Mohamed Nafa (1990-1992)   Ahmad Sa'd (1996-1999)
Saleh Saleem (1994-1999)
Tawfik Toubi (1977-1990)   Muhammed Wattad (1988)
Meir Vilner (1977-1990)
Tawfiq Ziad (1977-1990, 1992-1994)
..............................
Palestinian People's Party
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Palestinian People's Party
 

Leader   Bassam Al-Salhi
Founded   February 1982
Ideology   Socialism
Website
http://www.palpeople.org/


The Palestinian People's Party (PPP, in Arabic    Hizb al-Sha'b al-Filastini), founded in 1982 as the Palestinian Communist Party, is a socialist political party in the Palestinian territories and among the Palestinian diaspora.

The original Palestine Communist Party had been founded in 1919. After the foundation of the state of Israel and the Jordanian annexation of the West Bank, the West Bank communists joined as the Jordanian Communist Party, which gained considerable support among Palestinians. It established a strong position in the Palestinian trade union movement and retained considerable popularity in the West Bank during the 1970s, but its support subsequently declined. In the Gaza strip a separate Palestinian communist organization was established.

In February, 1982, prominent Palestinian communists held a conference and re-established the Palestinian Communist Party. The new party established relations with the Palestine Liberation Organization, and joined the PLO in 1987. A PCP member was included in the Executive Committee of the PLO in April that year.[1] PCP was the sole PLO member not based amongst the fedayeen organizations.

The PCP was one of the four components of the Unified National Leadership of the First Intifada, and played an important role in mobilizing grassroots support for the uprising.

The party, under the leadership of Bashir Barghouti, played an important role in reevaluating Marxism-Leninism as a political philosophy earlier than many other communist organisations in the region. It was renamed in 1991, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, to the Palestinian People's Party, arguing that the class struggle in Palestine should be postponed until after liberation.

The party was an enthusiastic advocate of the Oslo Accords.

In 2002, the party's then general secretary, Mustafa Barghouti left it with some supporters to found the Palestinian National Initiative.

In the January 2005 presidential election, the party's candidate Bassam as-Salhi received 2.67% of the vote.[2]

At the Palestinian legislative election, 2006 PPP formed a joint list called Al-badeel for the left wing parties with Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine, Palestine Democratic Union and independents. It received 2.8% of the popular vote and won two of the Council's 132 seats.

[edit]
Party leaders
Bashir Barghouti (1982-1998)
Hannah Amireh, Abdel Majid Hamadan, Mustafa Barghouti (1998-2002)
Bassam Al-Salhi (since 2003)

[edit]
Other notable members
Suleiman Al-Najab, member of the PLO Executive Committee.
................................
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Not to be confused with Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command.Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
   

General Secretary   Ahmad Sa'adat
Founded   1967
Headquarters   Ramallah
Ideology   Socialism,
Marxism-Leninism,
left-wing Palestinian nationalism
International affiliation   formely affiliated to the Arab Socialist Action Party
Website
www.pflp.ps
Palestinian National Authority


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on Jan. 9, 2009)
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1 On June 14, 2007, President Mahmoud Abbas dismissed Haniyeh's government and appointed Fayyad to form an emergency government. However, Haniyeh and Hamas maintain that these actions were illegal and that Haniyeh is still the Prime Minister. Haniyeh still exercises de facto authority in the Gaza Strip, while Fayyad's authority is limited de facto to the West Bank.
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A PFLP patrol in Jordan, 1969
 
PFLP May Day poster
 
2006 PFLP election poster in Bethlehem

The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) (Arabic:    , al-Jabhah al-Sha`biyyah li-Tarr Filasn) is a Marxist-Leninist, secular, nationalist Palestinian political and paramilitary organization, founded in 1967. It has consistently been the second-largest of the groups forming the Palestine Liberation Organization (the largest being Fatah).

The PFLP has generally taken a hard line on Palestinian national aspirations, opposing the more moderate stance of Fatah. It has been designated as a terrorist organization by the United States and the European Union.[1] It opposed the Oslo Accords and was for a long time opposed to the idea of a two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, but in 1999 came to an agreement with the PLO leadership regarding negotiations with Israel. The military wing of the PFLP is called the Abu Ali Mustapha Brigades.Contents [hide]
1 History of the PFLP
1.1 Origins in the ANM
1.2 Formation of the PFLP
1.3 Breakaway organizations
1.4 PLO membership
1.5 After the Oslo Accords
1.6 Elections in the PNA
2 Successors to George Habash
3 Attitude to the peace process
4 Membership profile
5 Armed attacks of the PFLP
5.1 Armed attacks before 2000
5.2 During the Al-Aqsa Intifada
6 Attitude to the 2007 Fatah Hamas Conflict
7 See also
8 External links
9 References


[edit]
History of the PFLP

[edit]
Origins in the ANM

The PFLP grew out of the Harakat al-Qawmiyyin al-Arab, or Arab Nationalist Movement (ANM), founded in 1953 by Dr. George Habash, a Palestinian Christian, from Lydda.

In 1948, 19 year old Habash, a medical student, went his home town of Lydda during the Israeli War of Independence to help his family. While he was there, Israeli troops conquered the city and expelled its civilian population, who were forced to march for three day without food or water until they reached the Arab front lines. Israeli Historian Benny Morris writes that "all the Israelis who witnessed the events agreed that the exodus, under a hot July sun, was an extended episode of suffering for the refugees, especially from Lydda...Some were stripped by soldiers of their valuables as they left town or at checkpoints along the way. Hundreds of civilians died in the scorching heat, from exhaustion, dehydration and disease.[2][3]

Habash finished his medical education in Lebanon at the American University in Beirut, graduating in 1951.[4]

In an interview with American journalist John Cooley, Habash identified the Arab defeat by Israel as "the scientific society of Israel as against our own backwardness in the Arab world. This called for the total rebuilding of Arab society into a twentieth-century society," (Cooley 1973:135).

The ANM was founded in this nationalist spirit. "[We] held the 'Guevara view' of the 'revolutionary human being'," Habash told Cooley. "A new breed of man had to emerge, among the Arabs as everywhere else. This meant applying everything in human power to the realization of a cause." (ibid.)

[edit]
Formation of the PFLP

The ANM formed underground branches in several Arab countries, including Libya, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, then still under British rule. It adopted secularism and socialist economic ideas, and pushed for armed struggle. In collaboration with the Palestinian Liberation Army, the ANM established Abtal al-Audah, Heroes of the Return, as a commando group in 1966. After the Six Day War of June 1967, this group merged in August with two other groups, Youth for Revenge and Ahmed Jibril's Syrian-backed Palestine Liberation Front, to form the PFLP, with Habash as leader.

By early 1968, the PFLP had trained between one and three thousand guerrillas. It had the financial backing of Syria, and was headquartered there, and one of its training camps was based in as-Salt, Jordan. In 1969, the PFLP declared itself a Marxist-Leninist organization, but it has remained faithful to Pan Arabism, seeing the Palestinian struggle as part of a wider uprising against Western imperialism, which also aims to unite the Arab world by overthrowing "reactionary" regimes. It published a newspaper, al-Hadaf (The Target, or Goal), which was edited by Ghassan Kanafani.

Evidence exists that the PFLP received financial support and purchased arms from the Nazi Francois Genoud (the executor of Goebbels will). Dr. Wadie Haddad is said to have dubbed him "Sheikh Francois". Genoud helped the PFLP submit its demands during the Lufthansa hijacking and supplied lawyers for PFLP men when they were captured in Europe. [5]

[edit]
Breakaway organizations

In 1968, Ahmed Jibril broke away from the PFLP to form the Syrian-backed Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command (PFLP-GC).

In 1969, the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP) formed as a separate, ostensibly Maoist, organization under Nayef Hawatmeh and Yasser Abd Rabbo, initially as the PDFLP.

In 1972, the Popular Revolutionary Front for the Liberation of Palestine was formed following a split in PFLP.

The PFLP had a troubled relationship with George Habash's one-time deputy, Wadie Haddad, who was eventually expelled. There are allegations that he was a Soviet agent, but this is not accepted by everyone.

[edit]
PLO membership
 
PFLP martyr poster in Bethlehem

The PFLP joined the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), the umbrella organization of the Palestinian national movement, in 1968, becoming the second-largest faction after Yassir Arafat's Fatah. In 1974, it withdrew from the organization's executive committee (but not from the PLO) to join the Rejectionist Front, accusing the PLO of abandoning the goal of destroying Israel outright in favor of a binational solution, which was opposed by the PFLP leadership. It rejoined the executive committee in 1981.

[edit]
After the Oslo Accords
 
PFLP graffiti in Bethlehem

After the eruption of the First Intifada and the subsequent Oslo Accords the PFLP had difficulty establishing itself in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The boycott of the 1996 elections gave many the impression that the PFLP was irrelevant to developments inside Palestine. At that time (1993–96) Hamas enjoyed rapidly rising popularity in the wake of their successful strategy of suicide bombings devised by Yahya Ayyash ("the Engineer"). Also, the fall of the Soviet Union together with the rise in the Arab world of Islamism—and particularly the increased popularity of the Islamist groups Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad—disoriented many left activists who looked towards the Soviet Union, and has marginalised the PFLP's role in Palestinian politics and armed resistance. However, the organization retains considerable political influence within the PLO, since no new elections have been held for the organisation's legislative body, the PNC.

As a result of its post-Oslo weakness, the PFLP has been forced to adapt slowly and find partners among politically active, preferably young, Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza, in order to compensate for their dependence on their aging commanders returning from or remaining in exile. The PFLP has therefore formed alliances with other leftist groups formed within the Palestinian Authority, including the Palestinian People's Party, the Popular Resistance Committees of Gaza.

In 1990, the PFLP transformed its Jordan branch into a separate political party, the Jordanian Popular Democratic Unity Party.

[edit]
Elections in the PNA

Following the death of Yasser Arafat in November 2004, the PFLP entered discussions with the DFLP and the Palestinian People's Party aimed at nominating a joint left-wing candidate for the presidential elections. These discussions were unsuccessful, and the PFLP then decided to support the independent Palestinian National Initiative's candidate Mustafa Barghouti, who gained 19.48% of the vote. In the municipal elections of December 2005 it had more success, e.g. in al-Bireh and Ramallah, and winning the mayorship of Bir Zeit. [2] There is conflicting reports about the political allegiance of Janet Mikhail and Victor Batarseh, the mayors of Ramallah and Bethlehem, they may be close to the PFLP without being members.

The PFLP is powerful politically in the Ramallah area, the eastern districts and suburbs of Jerusalem and Bethlehem, the primarily Christian Refidyeh district of Nablus, but has far less strength in the rest of the West Bank, and is of little or no threat to the established Hamas and Fatah movements in Gaza.

The PFLP participated in the Palestinian legislative elections of 2006 as the "Martyr Abu Ali Mustafa List". It won 4.2% of the popular vote and took three of the 132 seats in the Palestinian Legislative Council. Its deputies are Ahmad Sa'adat, Jamil Majdalawi, and Khalida Jarrar. In the lists, its best vote was 9.4% in Bethlehem, followed by 6.6% in Ramallah and al-Bireh, and 6.5% in North Gaza.

[edit]
Successors to George Habash

At the PFLP's Sixth National Conference in 2000, Habash stepped down as general secretary. Abu Ali Mustafa was elected to replace him, but was assassinated on 27 August 2001 when an Israeli helicopter fired rockets at his office in the West Bank town of Ramallah. The PFLP shot and killed the right-wing nationalist Israeli Tourism Minister Rehavam Zeevi in 17 November 2001 in retaliation.

Ahmad Sa'adat was subsequently elected general secretary on 3 October 2001. In January 2002, he was arrested by the Palestinian Authority under pressure from the United States and the United Kingdom and imprisoned in Jericho prison along with several other PFLP members accused by Israel of involvement in the Zeevi assassination. The Palestinian High Court ordered his release, stating that there were no legal grounds for the imprisonment, but the Palestinian National Authority refused to implement the court's decision. On 14 March 2006, the Israel Defense Forces attacked the prison and, after a 10-hour siege resulting in the death of two people and the wounding of 35, removed Sadat and five other inmates from the Jericho prison, arrested them, and took them to Israel for trial.

[edit]
Attitude to the peace process

When it was formed in the late 1960s the PFLP supported the established line of most Palestinian guerrilla fronts and ruled out any negotiated settlement with Israel that would result in two states between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea. Instead, George Habash in particular, and various other leaders in general advocated one state with an Arab identity in which Jews were entitled to live with the same rights as any minority.

The PFLP platform never wavered on key points such as the overthrow of conservative or monarchist Arab states like Morocco and Jordan, the Right of Return of all Palestinian refugees to their homes in pre-1948 Palestine, or the use of the liberation of Palestine as a launching board for achieving Arab unity - reflecting its beginnings in the Pan-Arab ANM. Today, the PFLP is less staunch in its opposition to a negotiated solution than it was in 1987, when the First Intifada broke out, but generally maintains a hardline profile.

[edit]
Membership profile

The current PFLP draws its support from urban, usually university educated Palestinians of varying ages who lead a more secular lifestyle, hold liberal beliefs on social issues, and socialist views on economic issues. Whereas Hamas completely dominates the lower class Gaza, Qalqilya, and Hebron, the PFLP has its roots among the urban middle class, often Christians like their founder George Habash who fear Islamisation of the Palestinians and the erasure of the rights of minorities within a Hamas theocracy.[citation needed]

The PFLP's armed wing, in the West Bank and Gaza, the Abu Ali Mustapha Brigades, draws much of its support from student organizations in universities like Al-Quds University (eastern Jerusalem), Bir Zeit University (Ramallah area), An-Najah National University (Nablus), and the Arab American University - Jenin. The movement has thousands of active or passive activists in the West Bank, and a few hundred behind bars in Israeli prisons.

[edit]
Armed attacks of the PFLP   This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2008)


This is a list of armed attacks attributed to the PFLP. It is not complete.

[edit]
Armed attacks before 2000

The PFLP gained notoriety in the late 1960s and early 1970s for a series of armed attacks and aircraft hijackings, including on non-Israeli targets:
The hijacking of an El Al flight from Rome to Lod airport in Israel on 23 July 1968. The Western media reported that the flight was targeted because the PFLP believed Israeli general Yitzhak Rabin, who was Israeli ambassador to the USA, was on board. Several individuals involved with the hijacking, including Leila Khaled deny this. The plane was diverted to Algiers, where 21 passengers and 11 crew members were held for 39 days, until August 31;
Gunmen opened fire on an El Al passenger jet in Athens about to take off for New York on 26 December 1968, killing one Israeli mechanic;
An attack on El Al passengers jet at Zrich airport on 18 February 1969, killing the co-pilot and wounding the pilot;
The bombing of a Jerusalem supermarket on 20 February 1969, killing two Israelis and wounding twenty others;
The hijacking of a TWA flight from Los Angeles to Damascus on 29 August 1969 by a PFLP cell led by Leila Khaled, who became the PFLP's most famous recruit. Two Israeli passengers were held for 44 days;
Three adult Palestinians and three boys aged 14 and 15 years old threw grenades at the Israeli embassies in The Hague, Bonn and the El Al office in Brussels on the same day, 9 September 1969 with no casualties;
Attack on a bus containing El Al passengers at Munich airport, killing one passenger and wounding 11 on 10 February 1970;
The bombing, with a barometric pressure device, of a Swissair flight bound for Israel, killing 47, on 21 February 1970; for details see Swissair Flight 330.
On 6 September 1970, the PFLP (including Leila Khaled) hijacked four passenger aircraft from Pan Am, TWA and Swissair on flights to New York from Brussels, Frankfurt and Zrich; and on 9 September 1970, hijacked a BOAC flight from Bahrain to London via Beirut. The Pan Am flight was diverted to Cairo; the TWA, Swissair and BOAC flights were diverted to Dawson's Field in Zarqa, Jordan. The TWA, Swissair and BOAC aircraft were subsequently blown up by the PFLP on September 12, in front of the world media, after all passengers had been taken off the planes. The event is significant, as it was cited as a reason for the Black September clashes between Palestinian and Jordanian forces.
On May 30, 1972, 28 passengers were gunned down at Ben Gurion International Airport by members of the Japanese Red Army in collaboration with the PFLP in what became known as the Lod Airport massacre.
On 13 October 13 1977, the PFLP hijacked Lufthansa flight LH181, a Boeing 737 flying from Palma de Mallorca to Frankfurt. After various stopovers the pilot was killed. The remaining passengers and crew were eventually rescued by German counter-terrorism special forces see Mogadishu hijacking.
The bombing of the synagogue of ULIF, located on rue Copernic, Paris, on October 3, 1980, during holiday services.[6]

[edit]
During the Al-Aqsa Intifada
See also: List of Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine suicide attacks

The PFLP's Abu Ali Mustapha Brigades has carried out attacks on both civilians and military targets during the Al-Aqsa Intifada. Some of these attacks are:
The killing of Meir Lixenberg, councillor and head of security in four settlements, who was shot while travelling in his car in the West Bank on 27 August 2001. PFLP claimed that this was a retaliation for the killing of Abu Ali Mustafa. [7][not in citation given]
The 21 October, 2001 assassination of Israeli Minister for Tourism Rehavam Zeevi by Hamdi Quran, the only Israeli politician to have been assassinated in the current intifada.[citation needed]
A suicide bombing in a pizzeria in Karnei Shomron, on the West Bank on 16 February 2002, killing three Israeli settlers. [7][not in citation given]
A suicide bombing in Ariel on 7 March 2002, which left wounded but no fatalities.
A suicide bombing in a Netanya market in Israel, on 19 May 2002, killing three Israelis. This attack was also claimed by Hamas[7],[not in citation given] but the Abu Ali Mustafa Brigades have identified the perpetrator on their website as one of their members[3][dead link][4][dead link]
A suicide bombing in the bus station at Geha Junction in Petah Tikva on 25 December, 2003 which killed 4 Israelis. [5]
A suicide bombing in Bikat Hayerden on 22 May , 2004 , which left no fatalities. [6]
A suicide bombing in the Carmel Market in Tel Aviv on 1 November, 2004 , which killed 3 Israeli civilians. [7]

[edit]
Attitude to the 2007 Fatah Hamas Conflict

The PFLP opposed the conflict between Hamas and Fatah and believes that the Salam Fayad government is not helpful in solving the conflict.


Оффлайн vasily ivanov

  • Администратор форума
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Re: Израиль и Палестина
« Ответ #1 : 14/03/11 , 01:41:31 »
Скончался старейший коммунист Израиля и депутат Кнессета первого созыва Тауфик Туби

В Хайфе на 88 году жизни скончался один из старейших политиков Израиля Тауфик Туби. Леворадикальный политик был депутатом Кнессета первого созыва, и затем многократно избирался в израильский парламент.

Тауфик Туби родился 11 мая 1922 года в Хайфе. В 1941 году он вступил в компартию Палестины. Был редактором коммунистической газеты на арабском языке "Аль-Иттихад". С 1976 года был генсекретарем партии "Хадаш". В 1990 году избран генеральным секретарем Компартии Израиля вместо ушедшего в отставку Меира Вильнера.

Похороны состоятся завтра, 13 марта, в 15:00 в Хайфе.

http://www.newsru.co.il/israel/12mar2011/tubi_009.html